In “States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China,” Skocpol analyzes the various components that intermesh together to create social revolutions. Social revolutions are best explained by finding the emergence of tension, instead of the making of the revolution. In Skopol’s terms, the emergence of a social revolution can be identified by a state breakdown and peasant mobilization. In France, Russia, and China social revolutions emerged due to military breakdown and the imperial state being caught between class uprisings and weak institutions. However, definitions of social revolutions are dependent on political and social backgrounds of countries as Skocpol stated, and some definitions are therefore insufficient like with Max Weber’s definition with bureaucratic domination.
As of July 24, 2018, Saudi women have been permitted to drive cars. Since Saudi Arabia is home to two holy Islamic sites and is a major oil exporter, successful social reforms would be able to bring about a moderate Islamic world. However, even though women being permitted to drive cars may be considered a social revolution it would be more accurate to categorize it as a social reform since there is no state breakdown or peasant mobilization like in Skocpol’s thesis.
Are social reforms able to stimulate the same amount of progress as social revolutions?
In regards to a country that has a long history of militants and repression like in Saudi Arabia, gradual social reforms may be best for change so no coup or insurgency will be sparked. An example of this would also be in Nigeria with the Biafran war. Nonetheless, social revolutions and reforms are dependable on a country’s political economy, social and international background.
Tyler J. Dickovick and Jonathan Eastwood, Comparative Politics: Classic and Contemporary Readings: “States and Social Revolutions: A Comparative Analysis of France, Russia, and China, (New York, Oxford University Press, 2017), 220-225.
Leaders. “How to Ensure Muhammad Bin Salman’s Reforms Succeed.” The Economist. June 23, 2018. Accessed February 12, 2019. https://www.economist.com/leaders/2018/06/23/how-to-ensure-muhammad-bin-salmans-reforms-succeed.