The People’s Republic of China

Country Profile

Population 1.386 billion (source: world bank, 2017)
Land 3,705,410 mi²
Head of State (President) Xi Jinping
Head of Government (Premier) Li Keqiang
Capital Beijing
Year of Independence/Regime 1 October 1949
Year of Current Constitution 4 December 1982
Languages Standard Mandarin, Cantonese, Hokkien, Shanghainese, Hunanese, Jiangxinese, Hakka, Portuguese, English
GDP per Capita 8826.99 USD (source: world bank, 2017)
Human Development Index Ranking Index 0.752Rank


Political Parties Communist Party of China (CPC)Revolutionary Committee of the Chinese Kuomintang (RCCK)

China Democratic League

China Democratic National Construction Association (CDNCA)

Geographic Distribution of Power 3,705,410 mi²

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China’s Main Theme: A gradually globalizing country that is grappling with contrasting values – being a communist state and having a liberalized economy.

China’s institutions are divided into two sections: Party Institutions and Government Institutions.

“The Fundamental Law of the State”

    • Leaders have little checks on their power, but implementing term limits has been discussed before.
    • Political elites mainly rely on informal sources to guide their decisions (personal connections, age, experience, etc.)
    • Rule of law does not work in China.
  • Slow globalization has opened up new issues for China surrounding the debate for more formal guidelines for rule.
National Party Congress and Party Institutions
National Party Congress (NPC) ⇄ Central Committee (CC)

Politburo ⇄ Politburo Standing Committee (PSC)

    • The NPC is the party’s representative body. They meet every five years to conduct “policy making.”
    • 18th Party Congress: Chinese Dream – Strength, civility, harmony, and sustainability.
    • Technically, the Politburo, the PSC, and the general secretary are all “elected”  by the CC and National Party Congress, but it’s truly party leaders that determine the makeup of these positions.
    • NPC “elects” CC which “selects” the Politburo, but it is truly the politburo standing committee that makes up the top most powerful leaders in China.
    • Politburo serves as China’s governing cabinet. Each member is responsible for a different set of issues.
    • Membership in the CC confirms elite status.
    • The Secretariat: oversees the implementation of Politburo decisions. Also heads the propaganda department.
    • Central Military Commission: Controls military.
  • Central Commission for Discipline Inspection: Helps maintain party loyalty, controls discipline, the internet, and roots out corruption.
Government Institutions
State Council Standing Committee ⇄ State Council

NPC Standing Committee ⇄ National People’s Congress

    • National People’s Congress (NPC): China’s unicameral legislature.
        • Appoints the State Council.
        • Elections are held every five years.
        • 3,000 delegates.
        • The top leader of the NPC must also be a member of the CCP’s Politburo Standing Committee.
        • Has the authority to pass laws, but the NPC has often served to merely ratify policies that are already determined by central leaders.
      • The NPC and it’s Standing Committee frequently engage in healthy debates and discussions that sometimes even call the party into question. The NPC has slowly started to shape policies of reform.
    • Head of State: The president.
        • Deng Xiaoping
        • Jiang Zemin
        • Hu Jintao
      • Xi Jinping
  • The State Council:
      • Executive branch led by the Premier. The Premier is recommended by the party’s CC.
      • Previously, the State Council managed the socialist economy, but that has changed since liberalization.
      • The state council oversees the work of the 25 bureaucratic ministries, and is responsible for managing the country’s economy, foreign relations, education, science, etc.
    • The state council has a standing committee.