This chapter studies the curious concept of revolutions and how social forces use different tactics and types of revolutions to achieve their end goals. The ITMC cites social and political conflicts, which are inherent and constant in any societies, as the initial source of revolutions. Most revolutions aim for the pursuit of the greater goods (which is coined contention by political and social scientists) through collective actions. The chapter also focuses on different types of revolutions and explores the relationship between different social concepts, namely resources, politics, power and equality, and revolutions.
- Revolution consists of a collective action that attempts to bring drastic change to society.
- Contention refers to the pursuit of the collective goods, including social movements, social revolutions, insurgencies and civil wars. The list also includes terrorism and everyday forms of resistance.
- Social movements are a healthy part of civil society, organizing collective actions to achieve a certain goal.
- Revolutions are transformative and involve mobilization or change in the structure of society.
- Insurgencies are prolonged armed actions challenging the power of the current regime.
- Civil wars are caused by different groups of insurgents
- Terrorism is the use of coercion that induces fears to achieve a certain goal or even power over state
- Cause and Effects: Why revolutions happen
- Relative deprivation happens when one feels that they have less than the other group.
- Resource mobilization argues that there will be constant social conflict and political opportunities can solve the problems.
- Rational theories focus on the conscious choices that people as individuals make that lead to the engagement of collective actions
|Revolution||A form of collective action in which some large-scale structural change is either attempted or accomplished.|
|Contention||The name, most associated with scholars like Sidney Tarrow and Charles Tilly, referring to the pursuit of collective goods, largely outside of formal political institutions.|
|Collective action||Joint efforts of individuals and groups to bring about a shared, preferred outcome.|
|Insurgencies||Contention with formalized military conflict.|
|Civil wars||Sustained military conflict between domestic actors.|
|Social revolution||Sudden changes in the structure and nature of society|
|Political revolution||The form of government altered in which property relations are predominantly left intact.|
|Coup d’etat||The overthrow of an existing government using military force.|
|Terrorism||In the context of revolutions or insurgencies, a tactic used by some participants that involve violence directed at non-military targets.|
– Demonstrative vs. destructive
|Iron Law of Oligarchy||The idea that collective action always produces new elites.|
|Subaltern||Occupying lower rungs in a hierarchical system.|
|Social movements||Ongoing organized collective action oriented toward a goal of social change|
|Civil society||A space in society outside of the organization of the state, in which citizens come together and organize themselves|
|Mobilization||The engagement of individuals and groups in sustained contention|
- Do social and political revolutions support of hinder the democratization process?
- Why are there sustained conflicts in a society? When does a conflict produce instability and when does it really help a society?
- How do revolutions differ from other types of contentions?
- Iran’s Supreme Leader Replaces Head of Revolutionary Guards
- Brexit Party launch: Farage on ‘democratic revolution’
- Evaluating Iran’s Twitter Revolution
Past AP Questions
2016 Q3 (2016 Q3)
2013 Q3 (2013 Q3)
|The first industrial revolution in the late 18th century propelled the economic development of the UK.||Mexican Revolution took place in 1910-1917 as the struggle between two groups for power over the state. The middle class uprise against the dictatorship of Diaz.||In May 1967, the southern Igbo region seceded from Nigeria and declared its own nation, the Republic of Biafra.||The Russian Revolution of 1917 (Bolshevik): the Russian revolution took place when the working class revolted against the government. They were led by Lenin and Bolsheviks (a group of revolutionaries). This revolution led to the creation of the Soviet Union.||The Revolution of 1949: Led by Mao and the Communist party of China, it resulted in the People’s Republic of China.||1906 Constitutional revolution |
-1979: overthrow of the last monarch of Iran (Reza Shah Pahlavi). Ayatollah Khomeini comes into power.